德语语法
 
  • The future tense-Formation of the future tense
    The future tense-Formation of the future tense
    Formation of the future tenseThe German future tense is formed by using the present tense of the auxiliary verb werden followed by the infinitive of the verb in question:Notes on word order1. The infinitive of the main verb in the future te
    12-12
  • The present tense and the infinitive
    The present tense and the infinitive
    The present tense of German verbs is formed from the infinitive of the verb. This is the part of speech which equates to the English to do, to speak etc. In German, the infinitive almost always ends in -en. To construct the individual forms
    12-12
  • 11. Reflexive verbs-3
    11. Reflexive verbs-3
    Reflexive verbs concerning the bodyThe dative reflexive pronoun is used in German with certain verbs when they refer to doing things to parts of the body (sich waschen) and putting on or taking off articles of clothing (sich anziehen, sich
    12-12
  • Modal verbs and the future tense
    Modal verbs and the future tenseTake care to distinguish between werden and wollen when expressing the future tense - English will is not the same as German will! wheras the auxiliary verb werden should be used to translate a future action,
    12-12
  • The future tense and the present tense
    In practice, the future tense is used much less frequently in German than it is in English. As we have seen in previous chapters, the present tense is often used indicate a future action, especially when an adverb already shows that the eve
    12-12
  • The "du" imperative of certain irregular verbs
    The "du" imperative of certain irregular verbs
    As we have seen when looking at the present tense, there are a number of irregular or 'strong' verbs with a stem vowel in -e- in the stem change this to -i- or -ie- in the du form on the present tense. These strong verbs also retain this vo
    12-12
  • The Imperative
    The Imperative
    The imperative is used to give orders or instructions or to express requests. The verb endings for the imperative depend on the person to whom you are talking:Formation of the imperative1. The du form of the imperative is formed by dropping
    12-12
  • The present tense and the infinitive
    The present tense and the infinitive
    The present tense of German verbs is formed from the infinitive of the verb. This is the part of speech which equates to the English to do, to speak etc. In German, the infinitive almost always ends in -en. To construct the individual forms
    12-12
  • German pronouns
    When learning the German pronouns, note that:The German pronoun ich does not start with a capital letter, unlike its English equivalent I.The third person pronouns er, sie and es can refer to persons. However they also substitute for all ma
    12-12
  • 2.2 Verbs with a stem in ending in -ss
    2.2 Verbs with a stem in ending in -ss
    These include beeinflussen (to influence), erpressen (to blackmail), fassen (to seize, to grasp), hassen (to hate), hissen (to hoist), kssen (to kiss), passen (to fit, to suit), stressen (to put under stress), verblassen (to fade), vermisse
    12-12
  • 2.1 Verbs with a stem in ending in -z
    2.1 Verbs with a stem in ending in -z
    2.1 Verbs with a stem in ending in -zThese verbs include chzen (to groan), beizen (to steep, to treat), beschmutzen (to make dirty), blitzen (to flash), duzen (to say du to someone), ergnzen (to complete), faulenzen (to laze about), geizen
    12-12
  • Verbs with a stem ending in -ieren
    Verbs with a stem ending in -ieren
    German verbs whose infinitive stem ends in -ieren have the same endings as regular German verbs.
    12-12
  • 2.3 Verbs with a stem in ending in -ß
    2.3 Verbs with a stem in ending in -ß
    These include beien (to bite), ben (to atone, to pay for), einflen (to instil into someone), entblen (to expose), flieen (to flow), fuen (to be based on), gren (to greet), heien (to be called), mutmaen (to conjecture), ruen (to smoke, to pr
    12-12
  • 2.6 Imported verbs with a stem in ending in -c
    2.6 Imported verbs with a stem in ending in -c
    These endings are also found in the present tense verbs with a stem in -c that have recently been imported from English.
    12-12
  • 2.5 Verbs with a stem in ending in -x
    2.5 Verbs with a stem in ending in -x
    These include boxen (to box), faxen (to fax), fixen (to fix, to shoot up (drugs)), hexen (to practise witchcraft), mixen (to mix), relaxen (to relax).
    12-12
  • 2.4 Verbs with a stem in ending in -s
    2.4 Verbs with a stem in ending in -s
    These include brausen (to roar, to thunder), bremsen (to brake), dsen (to doze), einheimsen (to collect, to rake in), entgleisen (to be derailed; to misbehave), grasen (to graze), grinsen (to grin), hausen (to live; to wreak), hopsen (to ho
    12-12
  • Verbs with a stem ending in -d
    Verbs with a stem ending in -d
    In the present tense, German verbs whose infinitive stem ends in -d:add -est and not -st in the du formadd -et and not -t in the er/sie/es formadd -et and not -t in the ihr formVerbs with a stem in ending in -d include:A-E: ahnden (to aveng
    12-12
  • Verbs with a stem ending in -t
    Verbs with a stem ending in -t
    In the present tense, German verbs whose infinitive stem ends in -t equally:add -est and not -st in the du formadd -et and not -t in the er/sie/es formadd -et and not -t in the ihr formVerbs with a stem in ending in -t include:A-E: achten (
    12-12
  • Verbs with a stem ending in consonant + m
    Verbs with a stem ending in consonant + m
    In the present tense, German verbs whose infinitive stem ends in consonant + m equally:add -est and not -st in the du formadd -et and not -t in the er/sie/es formadd -et and not -t in the ihr formNormal present tense endings are applied how
    12-12
  • 4. Verbs with a stem ending in consonant + n
    4. Verbs with a stem ending in consonant + n
    In the present tense, German verbs whose infinitive stem ends in consonant + n:add -est and not -st in the du formadd -et and not -t in the er/sie/es formadd -et and not -t in the ihr formSuch verbs include begegnen (to meet), bewaffnen (to
    12-12
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